The plane with 275 people on board was involved in an accident but all the passengers were evacuated safely, the government said.
All departures from Dubai International Airport have been halted â€œuntil further notice,â€ it added.
Emirates confirmed the incident, saying that the plane was a Boeing 777.
â€œWe can confirm flight EK521 from Thiruvananthapuram to Dubai has been involved in an accident at Dubai International,â€ the carrier said on its Twitter account.
â€œThere were 275 passengers and crew on board. Our main priority now is the safety and well-being of all involved,â€ it said.
Emirates said it had â€œno further information on what may have caused the accidentâ€.
â€œOur priority remains with the passengers and crew involved,â€ it said.
Footage on social media showed thick black smoke coming out of the centre of the plane while the fuselage appeared to be lying on the runway with escape slides opened.
The Dubai Media Office said the fire â€œhas been contained,â€ adding that emergency teams at the airport and Emirates are â€œwell trained to deal with such incidentsâ€.
The accident comes almost four months after a plane belonging to Dubaiâ€™s other carrier, flydubai, crashed and burst into flames as it was landing in Rostov-on-Don, in southern Russia, killing all 61 people onboard.
On July 26, an Emirates Boeing 777-300 aircraft heading to the Maldives made an emergency landing in Mumbai because of a â€œtechnical faultâ€.
Dubai International is the worldâ€™s largest hub in terms of international passengers, and is the base for Emirates, from where it serves more than 153 destinations.
Emirates, Qatar Airways and Abu Dhabiâ€™s Etihad have seized a significant portion of transcontinental travel, capitalising on the geographic locations of their Gulf hubs.
Emirates is the largest single operator of the Boeing 777, as well as the Airbus A380 superjumbo, and has expanded its fleet to 250 aircraft last year.